High tech crimes, also known as hi-tech crimes, are defined in Commonwealth legislation within Part 10.7 – Computer Offences of the Criminal Code Act 1995 as specific computer related offences, such as computer intrusions, or, in other words, malicious hacking, unauthorised modification of data, involving destruction of data, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks using botnets, and the creation and distribution of malicious software, such as worms, viruses, Trojans. In Australia, each state and territory has enacted its own legislative framework that regulates computer-related offences. These frameworks resemble the Commonwealth legislation.
Computer intrusion is the first and foremost type of high tech crimes under Australia’s law. Australian statutes define computer intrusion as any unauthorised access to any computer or network of computers. The crime of computer intrusion may be manifested in different forms. Thus, it might take the form of hacking of free email services. The State or Territory police usually deal with the matters of hacking in cases when the perpetrator resides in Australia. In the majority of cases, Australian law enforcement agencies will be devoid of jurisdiction to investigate and prosecute cases of hacking when the perpetrator resides overseas.
It’s common for friends to decide to go into business together. However, as experienced commercial lawyers will tell you, it’s equally common for friends to fall out when they become business partners. Businesses are often started by friends who take a shared idea or vision forward and turn into a profitable venture. The initial excitement of starting up a new business often results in the partners turning a blind eye to the problems that may occur in the future. This is especially true when young and inexperienced entrepreneurs embark on a new business.
There is always a possibility that things may turn sour or the partners may have divergent visions for the business. In other words, it’s important to have a set of watertight business documents and an agreement that provides guidelines on various aspects of business. In fact, it’s fairly common to come across businesses that lack governing documents in cases of disputes. Most shareholders tend to consult a legal professional after the problems start rearing their heads. It’s a good idea to have a business agreement or governing documents in place because you will have a well-structured reference that contains solutions to contentious issues that may arise.
If you are charged with a crime you have the right to legal representation, so the first thing to do is contact criminal lawyers who can work with you to get the best result. Remember you don’t have to answer any police questions without your lawyer present, except to give your name and address.
While a lawyer will advise you, you are the only one who can decide whether a plea of guilty or innocence should be given. Depending on what the offence was, you may be charged and released on bail. Otherwise, if not given bail you will have to remain in custody until the matter is settled.
If you plead guilty and are released on bail, you may be given the option to not appear in court. Your case can be heard without your presence and you’ll be notified by mail of the penalty. If you plead not guilty, the trial must go ahead and you will need to attend. You should always have a lawyer to represent you as they know the law and can speak on your behalf, saying things in your defence that you may not have thought of.
When you are considering buying property, it is wise to consult with property lawyers to ensure everything is legal and above board. They’ll be able to tell you what to look out for and do all the legwork in making sure the property is suitable, safe and sound. They may also give advice on property law and pricing.
Older properties can be found closer to the CBD and in inner city locations. This puts you closer to the action and can save on transport costs to work and to other amenities. It’s not so far to go to dine out and find other things you like to participate in as part of your inner city lifestyle.
Divorces can be long, drawn out processes, especially if you and your ex split on unfriendly terms. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to separate your finances after a divorce, even if you both worked and had individual bank accounts. For people who shared a bank account and where only one person in the relationship worked, it can seem near impossible. Good family lawyers can help you gain financial freedom from your ex post divorce, so speak to one if you are having trouble.
Separating your finances:
The first thing to do when it comes to gaining financial freedom is separating your finances. Many couples share things like bank accounts and investments, which can make complete separation very hard. In this case, you need to either come to an agreement about how the funds will be split, or take the matter to a court (with the help of a good family lawyer). Close any joint accounts and open separate individual accounts so that your ex can’t see what you are spending your money on – after all, it’s none of their business after you are separated.
One of the most difficult and contentious phases of a divorce proceeding is the property settlement. Most divorce cases that go to trial inevitably focus on disputes surrounding community property. Several key tips, as well as the advice of a competent family lawyer will help you survive this particular battle.
Since most jurisdictions apply community properly principals the court will seek to equitably divide all marital assets and award fifty percent of the value to each spouse. This might involve liquidating property that would seriously inconvenience one of the parties. Equity in a house, for example, cannot be split without selling the home, refinancing, or otherwise giving commensurate value to the receiving spouse. All of these options may be troubling or seriously concerning to you, which brings up tip number 1.
Knowledge is power
Make sure you know where all property is and how it is owned. Records such as deeds, titles, promissory notes, etc. are helpful. The purpose is to arm you with information so you can make intelligent decisions. If you know the value of the marital assets you can decided before negotiating which pieces of property you most want and how they may be split in the divorce. If you have a large number of assets coordinating with your family lawyer is essential. Divorce is a law suit which comes with certain obligations and rules and breaking any of them can put you in hot water with the court.
Divorce often proves to be an emotional and stressful experience. Requesting timely assistance from competent family lawyers can help you resolve issues and negotiate a fair share in a rational manner. Negotiations prove to be far more effective when performed in a collaborative rather than confrontational manner. You may not be used to handling money matters by force of habit. For example, your spouse may have been more dominant and experienced regarding financial issues.
In such cases, it’s very important to be kind to yourself and ask for an adequate share so that you can live comfortably. The process of financial and property settlement is equally applicable to marriage relationships as well as de facto relationships. Australian laws are equally applicable to opposite sex or same sex relationships.
No one ever likes to admit that some day they will, well, check out of this life. No matter what phase of life you find yourself in thinking about estate planning can be overwhelming and distasteful. Even thinking about a Will or a lawyer can be scary. In Estate Planning It’s difficult to know where to start, to understand what’s important and what’s not, and sometimes even beginning the discussion with family members can cause hard feelings.
There are, however, things that you can do to simplify and streamline estate planning decisions that are low cost, simple, and which will avoid problems and heartache in the future.
Here are a few simple tips:
Start Simple. Some people will tell you that an instrument called a ‘revocable trust’ is essential for everyone. Several decades ago that may have been true, but in the last few years the estate tax exemption has dramatically increased and fewer people have estates large enough to require this kind of tax planning. Instead, start with a simple Will. Every person should have one because otherwise the laws of the state in which you live will decide how your property is divided.
You don’t have to be a criminal lawyer to successfully dispute a traffic ticket. You may need a brief trip to court to get a dismissal but that’s no reason to give up. Below are some helpful tips based on interviews with real-world police officers.
It all starts with the traffic stop
Trained police officers are copious note takers. Typically, each has a notebook where he/she jots down exactly what happens on every encounter with a citizen, from a casual enquiry to a felony traffic stop. They use this information for everything from writing up official reports to reminding themselves what happened with a particular subject a month later when they encounter the same individual.
The important part for you is this: however you act during the traffic stop will be noted in the police officers notebook, and sometimes on the ticket itself. That means if you are rude and belligerent during the stop the court may find out about it during your hearing. The solution is to be polite, even if you don’t agree with the officer. Nothing ever good will happen when you berate a police officer.
Business relationships can sour and partners may fall out as a result of disputes. Consulting commercial lawyers can help you resolve shareholder disputes in a collaborative manner. You and your partners may have incorporated a business entity and may differ on your respective visions for the business. Disagreements may also occur due to various other reasons. You may find yourself in a stressful situation if the relationship has soured and the shareholders are unable to agree on a vision. Alternatively, solutions may be proposed but your partners and shareholders may not agree to them.
Such a situation is known as a deadlock and this often has an adverse impact on day-to-day trade. It’s important to resolve the dispute so that problems are ironed out at the earliest. A shareholder’s dispute may occur between partners in a trust, directors and shareholders, between directors or generally between individuals who control a business entity. The underlying motive for a shareholders’ dispute is always a struggle for control. A trustworthy lawyer can help ascertain your legal position.
Estate planning is a complex process which many people put off because they feel that it is too hard or not worth doing. However, estate planning is all about protecting your loved ones and making sure that they don’t get penalised if you happen to pass away. Although estate planning isn’t fun and can take up a lot of time, high-quality estate planning lawyers are out there, and are a great choice when you are looking for someone to help you put a plan into place.
There are many reasons why estate plans are very important. They apply to everyone, rich and poor, young and old and should be put into place as soon as possible if you don’t already have one. A few of the reasons why estate plans are so important include:
They can help avoid taxes
Sure, you won’t have to pay any taxes when you die, but your loved ones will. Estate planning is all about making sure that the recipients of your property after you die won’t have to pay extremely high taxes. While they will undoubtedly still have to pay some, a decent estate plan can help keep taxes as low as possible. Talk an estate planning lawyer for more information.
Broadly speaking, a power of attorney is a legal document that authorises another individual to manage the business or other affairs of the person that issued the power of attorney and on his behalf. On the other hand, a will is a legal document that allows to make a decision on what is going to happen to the will maker’s property and assets in case of his death. In order to better understand the differences and significance of a will and power of attorney, it is essential to review the general principles of Australian law that regulate these two types of legally significant documents. First and foremost, Australian law defines a will as a written, not oral, document that incarnates the true wishes of the person regarding the distribution of his property after his death. Under Australian law, an individual who creates a will is usually known as a ‘testator’. The creation of a will makes it possible for the person to select different options of property distribution by designating what is going to happen to his assets in case of his death. Aside from the above, the creation of a will enables the will maker to designate an executor, who will be responsible for bringing the will maker’s wishes into life.
Company law of Australia regulates shareholder disputes and various methods of dispute resolution. In case a business entity is owned by two or more shareholders, is managed by two directors and there is no shareholders agreement, the business entity will not be immune from a variety of disputes that may occur there and create deadlock between the members. There are several dispute resolution strategies that help Australian companies survive. Present-day shareholder agreements tend to handle situations when it is necessary to share sales proceed. Also, modern shareholder agreements may regulate how “bad leavers” – shareholders and employees who have resigned or been terminated with cause – be compelled to sell their shares back to the company. However, if there is no shareholder agreement, there may be much more difficult to settle shareholder disputes under Australian law. In this connection, the disputing parties frequently have recourse to the company constitution, according to which deadlocks can be resolved by way of a casting vote of the chairman. In case a shareholder shows intent to get rid of this shares, he has to propose them to other shareholders, in accordance with the company constitution, or, if the company does not have any constitution, in conformity with the replaceable rules in the Corporations Act that empower the company in cases when, for some reason, the company does not have constitution.